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    Svetlitsky A. A.


    About the author: Svetlitsky A. A.
    Type of article Scentific article
    Annotation Well-known is the fact that working with cadaveric material in medical schools is difficult, both in our country and abroad. This is determined by a number of moral and ethical aspects, as well as a number of other factors, including imperfect legislation of voluntary will or transfer body for high school medical institution [1]. However, the need for medical students training cadaveric material for the study of human anatomy, pathological anatomy, forensic medicine is unique. In connection with which there is a need to maximize the lifetime of educational products. The aim of this work is the selection of an appropriate method of anatomical specimens and tubular hollow organs manufacture, allowing a maximum service life of anatomical specimens. In our work human and animal hearts, industrial «Hencel», «Macroflex» silicone sealants were used. For fixation of specimens produced a 10% formalin solution. As a transition environment orthoxylole was used. Posting specimens at a negative pressure produced in a vacuum chamber, developed at the Department of Human Anatomy and made by a student of 2nd year of medical faculty ZSMU M.S. Stoian. The chamber volume is 50 cm3, which enables placing in individual organs or body parts. As well-known plastination process carried out in several stages: stage 1 - fixing, can be achieved by the use of standard fasteners, such as formaldehyde solution, Keyserling’s solution. Hollow bodies must be expanded during fixation as well as during the dehydration of the gas processed and curing. Stage 2 - dehydration, removes from the sample liquid, as well as a certain amount of fat. At this stage the tissue is replaced with an organic liquid solvent. As dehydrations for plastination can be used the alcohol or acetone. [5,6]. Тhe аcetone is used in most cases because the acetone also serves as an intermediary - a solvent in the next stage - the impregnation. To minimize the shrinkage of the sample, dehydration takes place in a cold (- 15 ° C to 25 ° C) acetone. Dehydration is terminated when the water content is less than 1%. Stage 3 - forced impregnation is a major step in plastination. At this stage mediator solvent (acetone) is replaced with a hardening polymer. The dehydrated sample was immersed in a cold (-15 ° C to -25 ° C) of the polymer blend. After several days of immersion, the organ is placed in a chamber with negative pressure. Stage 4 gas polymerization (curing). The method allows to make preparations as organs and whole bodies of humans and animals, but the need for expensive equipment (freezers and vacuum systems) and materials (acetone, resins, hardeners) for the manufacture of plastinated samples make it difficult to access [7]. In our work we have tried to avoid working with flammable acetone replacing it less volatile and explosive xylole. Withdraw of organs made for 3-5 minutes after the death. The animal's heart was washed with warm water until the blood clots were removed by washing the vessels by heparin. Fixation in 10% formalin solution was produced. After the fixation organ was dissected and mounted and washing it in running water for 72 hours. After washing, the fixed material held on the battery alcohols. Duration of exposure to each of the alcohols was chosen empirically, and for the heart is: 40% ethyl alcohol - 12hours, 50% -12 hours -12 hours 60% 70% - 6 h 80% - 6 h 90% - 4 h 100% - 4 hours. Then, a solution of ethyl alcohol and xylole at concentrations of 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, each of the solutions of the drug is maintained for 4 hours. After incubation in the combined solutions, the specimen was transferred to a clean xylole, which is maintained for 4 hours. For the gradual replacement of the preparation by liquid silicone preparation alternately placed into xylole solutions with silicone at concentrations of 2:1, 1:1, 1:2. The transmission of specimen ends with moving it in pure silicon [8]. Beginning with the xylole solutions with silicone, the exposure of the drug takes place in a vacuum chamber (designed and manufactured by its own model) at a negative pressure of 0.5 atmospheres for 12 hours each concentration. The next step is the surface treatment of the drug solution of 96% alcohol to clean the silicone residues. At the end a ready-made model is dried in the open air. The advantage of this method is that the resulting formulation does not require permanent storage in formalin solution, strong enough and retains visibility and relative elasticity, which allows its use as a demonstration of the preparation for the practical lessons on human anatomy in medical school. If necessary, medication or parts can be easily painted by acrylic dyes with a brush or a portable airbrush [9,10]. In contrast to the classical method, the use of synthetic industrial silicone to avoid the 4th stage of plastination gas polymerization. The disadvantage of this method is low shrinkage specimen. Thus, the presented method of making anatomical samples is relatively simple, does not require the use of expensive equipment and consumables, and the resulting products correspond to the requirements of the anatomical specimens - maximum, visibility, durability. In future improvement of the proposed method, in order to eliminate the shrinkage of the specimen is planned.
    Tags anatomical preparations, plastination, silicone vacuum chamber
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    Publication of the article «World of Medicine and Biology» №4(47) 2 part 2014 year, 190-192 pages, index UDK 57.085.4:611:530.225