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    Vernygorodskyi S. V.

    NEW APPROACHES TO TEACHING PATHOMORPHOLOGY AND A BIOPSY-SECTIONAL COURSE IN THE CONDITIONS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION MODERNISATION


    About the author: Vernygorodskyi S. V.
    Heading QUESTIONS OF МEDICAL EDUCATION
    Type of article Scentific article
    Annotation The main focus of the state policy in education is the rise of higher education in Ukraine to the level of higher education in European countries and its integration in the international research and educational community. To ensure the quality of medical diagnosis and care, a doctor must constantly self-improve, be aware of all the advances in medical science and maintain the required level of his/her knowledge and skills. Pathomorphology (PF) and a biopsy-sectional course (BSC) occupy a special place in the training of doctors. PF acts both as a preclinical basic medical and biological science and a clinical subject which includes special pathology and study of the structural basis of disease. The practice of teaching PF and BSC at the Department of Pathological Anatomy proves that, as of now, integration between disciplines is rather poorly developed due to the absence of clear cross-training programs. Teachers of PF have constantly to make excursion in histology, anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, because without a clearly formed knowledge of these subjects and their relationships with clinic the students have a lack of understanding of many pathological processes. For example, without the knowledge of carbohydrate biochemistry, it is so difficult to understand mesenchymal degenerations. In the first and second courses, the students learn Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, Biochemistry, Biology and other basic subjects, but by the third year they forget the basics that are needed for understanding not only PF but also other subjects that appear in the next courses vertically. Therefore, Histology is often studied by the students apart from PF, Physiology and other subjects. Studying BSC a student is unable to understand the underlying disease, complications and comorbidities. Comparison of pathological and clinical manifestations of disease allows students to gain skills in clinical and anatomical analysis of synthetic generalization of diagnostic symptoms and their proper interpretation of causal-consequential comparison. Situational tasks as one of the modern teaching methods include a set of symptoms and syndromes in clinical and postmortem diagnoses. An important role in improving the learning process is played by a clinical pathological conference which also contributes to clinical thinking, training of doctors, knowledge and skills, responsibility of students in examination and the formulation of clinical diagnosis in the future. After graduating from the medical university, the most difficult section for learning of interns, clinical residents and masters in Pathological Anatomy insides problems of the microscopic diagnosis of pathological processes, as they require a lot of efforts and a long-term study. This is due not only to the fact that doctors have to refer to material that was studied many years before, but also due to different tasks which are solved by the Department of Histology in teaching students. When unable to obtain the necessary information about the clinical picture of the disease, a physician-pathologist is often forced to resort only to the description of the structural changes sent away for studying morphological objects without a clear conclusion, which devalues the method of histological investigation, and a clinician faces difficulties in the interpretation of the morphological picture. Classes in microscopic diagnosis, along with individual work with a microscope , are preferably carried out under the supervision of a teacher using a microscope fitted with a camera that provides the output onto the monitor. One of the most effective ways of restructuring higher medical education and medical care of the population is performing a complex of organizational measures to integrate teaching, research and practical activities of medical universities and medical institutions. That is, the establishment of educational, research and practical associations (ERPA) on the basis the Department of Pathological Anatomy as a source of the Institute of Pathology (such as the European Institute of Pathology) will improve the quality of teaching the subject and solving the problem of training highly qualified specialists. Merging of logistical and human resources of universities and pathology services will enhance the diagnostic work and provide objectivity in identifying defects of examination and treatment of patients. The establishment of ERPA will form the basis for implementing the idea of continuous training specialists through internship, master course, clinical internship, postgraduate course. Creating associations will to a certain extent allow to optimize research work, providing a continuous supply of autopsy and biopsy material and bring research closer to the needs of practical medicine, shorten maximally the path of research workings out to practice.
    Tags pathomorphology, biopsy-autopsy course, medical education, modernization
    Bibliography
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    Publication of the article «World of Medicine and Biology» №2(50) 2 part 2015 year, 199-202 pages, index UDK 378:616-091.0