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    Syrtsov V. K., Yevtushenko V. M., Kluchko S. S.

    ULTRASTRUCTURAL FEATURES OF THE EPITHELIAL COMPONENT OF THE HUMAN PROSTATE IN THE PRENATAL PERIOD OF ONTOGENESIS


    About the author: Syrtsov V. K., Yevtushenko V. M., Kluchko S. S.
    Heading EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
    Type of article Scentific article
    Annotation Most authors believe that the insertion of the prostate appears on the 12th week of embryogenesis. The enlargement of the prostate gland in the first half of embryogenesis occurs due to the formation of new glandular elements, and at 8-9 months its weight increases due to an increase in the content of muscle and connective tissue components. Thus, at the time of birth, the size of the organ increases 4-5 times. Studies on embryonic development of the prostate gland are few, therefore, we consider it necessary to investigate the ultrastructure of the epithelium of the prostate gland. Objective. Study of ultrastructural features of the epithelium of the human prostate gland in the prenatal period of ontogenesis. Material and Methods. For the study selected 35 prostate glands of human aged 8 - 39 weeks of embryogenesis. Pieces of the prostate gland for electron microscopic studies were fixed according to a conventional method. Ultrathin sections were prepared on ultramicrotomy "LKB" and studied on an electron microscope PEM-125K at an accelerating voltage of 80 kV and magnification of a microscope from 10,000 to 21,000. Results and discussion. The analysis made it possible to establish that the first signs of the formation of the prostate appear at the end of the second month of embryogenesis in the form of a cluster of cells in the fold of the bladder. In the future, more specific morphological structures can be observed. In the prostate gland of fruits of 17-18 weeks, further proliferative processes occur in the epithelial tissue. There is a proliferation of epithelial cords, the transformation of the latter into the final secretory departments. The nature of the epithelial cover is changing. Particularly large rearrangements are experienced by the glandular formations of the lateral parts of the organ. In 18-week-old fetuses in the epithelium of the prostatic part of the urethra and in some cells of the epithelium of the secretory departments, secretion granules turn out to be. In cells there are colorless vacuoles corresponding to the size of the granules. The secretion processes take place in turn in separate groups of glandular sections. Secretory granules are more common in the cells of the epithelium of the glandular ducts than in the terminal sections. The fetal of 20-25 weeks is marked by a further increase in the number of secretory departments. During this period they reach the extreme parts of the gland. The average size of their diameter increases. From the 29th week there has been a slight slowdown in the growth rate of the prostate gland. There is an in-depth specialization of tissues aimed at preparing for the performance of the organ-specific functions, although the growth processes continue. One of the features of epithelial cells of the prostate gland is the process of keratinization, which appears in fruits at the age of 29 weeks. In subsequent periods (30-35 weeks) of keratinization continues. Epithelial components of the prostatic gland of fruits of 27-29 weeks are prone to severe proliferative changes associated with the continuing specialization of glandular sections and excretory ducts. The process of functional specialization of epithelial cells occurs asynchronously, they are located as the development of glandular sections from the center to the periphery. If the granules of the secretion can be found in the prostatic part of the urethra for 18 weeks, then at 24-25 weeks they are located only in far away from the center epithelial cells. We can assume that certain phases of differentiation of the epithelium are accompanied by a change in the secretory processes. From the 29th week there has been a slight slowdown in the growth rate of the prostate gland. There is an in-depth specialization of tissues aimed at preparing for the performance of the organ-specific functions, although the growth processes continue. The intensity of secretory processes in epithelial cells continues to increase. In the ultramicroscopic study, secretory clusters are represented as granules in the cytoplasm of cells and mucous clots in the lumen of the secretory and excretory divisions. In this connection, the question arises: what is the meaning or importance of the secretory activity of the gland in a given period of ontogeny? It should also be noted that in the prostate gland, it is likely that a number of hormones and endocrine factors such as prostaglandins are produced. Some authors suggest that they are contained in the secretion of the epithelium, from which they are then absorbed into the blood, although the presence of an analogous function in cells that are derivatives of connective tissue can not be excluded. The prostate gland in the embryonic period of ontogeny can be considered as one of the endocrine formations of the fetus. In addition, the epithelium acts as the organizer of the structure of the prostate gland, as an organ. So, the epithelium belongs to the leading role in the formation of the prostate in embryogenesis, including the formation in it of certain interrelations between its tissue components. Conclusions and prospects for further research 1. For the first time signs of the formation of the prostate gland appear at the end of week 8 of embryogenesis. Morphological signs of differentiation of tissues - sources of prostate formation appear on the 12-14th week of intrauterine development. 2. The most complex processes of morphogenesis - growth and differentiation of tissues, as well as interstitial interactions, occur in the gland during the 14th to 35th week of its embryonic development. Differentiation of epithelial tissue of the gland, first of all, is manifested in the appearance and gradual growth of the secretory activity of epithelial cells. 3. The prostate gland in the embryonic period of ontogeny can be considered as one of the endocrine formations of the fetus. In the future we plan to study the muscular and connective tissue components of the human prostate gland in the prenatal period of ontogenesis.
    Tags prostate gland, epithelial component, prenatal ontogenesis, electron microscopic method
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    Publication of the article «World of Medicine and Biology» №2(60), 2017 year, 153-156 pages, index UDK 611. 637. 018. 24]-053