• Main
  • Useful links
  • Information for Contributors
  • About
  • Editorial board

  • Article
    Voitenko V.L., Gunina L.M., Oleshko V.G., Nosach E.V.


    About the author: Voitenko V.L., Gunina L.M., Oleshko V.G., Nosach E.V.
    Type of article Scentific article
    Annotation It is commonly known that the succinic acid enhances body resistance to all types of stress and helps to protect it from infectious, radiation, climatic and other negative external factors by means of significant improvement of cell energy supply. Energy power of ATP synthesis process during succinate oxidation is substantially higher than that of any other substrate that is why a significant amount of energy-dependent processes can occur only when the succinic acid is oxidized. The succinic acid, being an important energy substrate, stimulates growth and development of cells, which is of importance during intensive physical loads, positively effects immune protection processes and contributes to acid-base balance normalization, which substantiates succinate usage in preparation of athletes. Succinic acid and its derivatives have been used in sports practice for rather long period of time as the non-doping (not prohibited) means for enhancement of endurance during competitions and in the process of preparation as well as for recovery process acceleration after physical loads, especially those of submaximal intensity. Succinate (and its derivatives) is used as a component of sports foods and sports drinks, but for the most part this substance is utilized in the form of dietary supplements in the preparation of athletes. In addition, no studies of the efficiency of succinic acid action in athletes based on principles of the evidence-based medicine have been conducted so far. In our randomized, placebo-controlled blind study, the mechanisms of biological action and the effectiveness of the succinic acid derivative impact (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate) in the form of Armadin®Long preparation on the indices of special physical work capacity were evaluated in 16 athletes under physical loads of submaximal intensity at the final stage of preparation. All athletes were divided into 2 groups, representative in number (by 8), gender (all men), age (from 17 to 22 years), level of athletic skill (I category) and anthropometric characteristics. Athletes of the main group received Armadin®Long in a daily dose of 6 tablets (2 tablets three times a day) for 21 days before the competitions, whereas those of control group were given placebo (starch tablets). No other pharmacological agents were prescribed to athletes; in accordance with the bioethical principles, the "Informed consent" was signed by the participants of the study. In addition, the studied homeostasis indices were also analyzed in 12 healthy untrained persons (donors) of the same sex (male) and age (17-22 years) for the purpose of comparison. Before and after the end of Armadin®Long or placebo administration special physical work capacity was determined in athletes of both groups by measuring the height and time of control exercise performance. Venous blood was used to examine the indices of prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB), which were then evaluated according to changes of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione contents in erythrocyte cell membranes; pro-oxidant-antioxidant coefficient (Cpa) was also determined. The content of accumulated and circulating lactate (lactic acid) and blood pH were determined in the capillary blood of athletes. It was found that the preparation caused the decrease of MDA content in erythrocyte membranes along with simultaneous accumulation of reduced glutathione that was expressed in decreased pro-oxidant-antioxidant coefficient as well as normalization of pH and lactate content, which were not observed in placebo group. At the same time, a significant (P < 0.05) improvement of special physical work capacity indices was noted in the main group of athletes. Correlation analysis allowed to establish significant dependences between Cpa, pH and special work capacity indices. The findings partially reveal the action mechanisms of succinate derivatives, which are based on the normalization of the structural and functional state of cell membranes, pH and the decrease of lactate content, and substantiate the expediency and effectiveness of Armadin®Long preparation usage during physical loads of submaximal intensity.
    Tags succinic acid, lipid peroxidation, limiting power loads, pH, acidosis, physical working capacity
    • Gonchar OO, Nosar VI, Bratus LV, Timchenko IM, Steshenko MM, Mankovska IM. Enerhetichnyi ta antyoksidantnyi status mitohondriy pechinky shuriv za umov hipoksiyi-reoksihenatsiyi riznoyi tryvalosti. Fiziol zhurnal. 2015;61(6):35-45. [in Ukrainian]
    • Gunina L. Obosnovanie primeneniya dieticheskoy dobavki "JantarIn-Sport" v praktike podgotovki sportsmenov vysokoy kvalifikatsii. Nauka v olimpiyskom sporte. 2011(1-2):60-5. [in Russian]
    • Gunina LM. Vliyaniye yantarnoy kisloty i yeye proizvodnykh na fizicheskuyu rabotosposobnost sportsmenov. Dopovidi NAN Ukrayiny. 2013;(3):180-4. [in Russian]
    • Gunina LM, Vinnichuk JuD, Nosach EV. Biohimicheskiye markery utomleniya pri fizicheskoy nagruzke: metodicheskiye rekomendatsii. Kiev: Olimpiyskaya literatura; 2013. 35 s. [in Russian]
    • Lang TA, Sesik M. Kak opisyvat statistiku v medicine: rukovodstvo dlya avtorov, redaktorov i retsenzentov. Moskva: Prakticheskaya medicina. 2011; 480 s. [in Russian]
    • Alleman RJ, Tsang AM, Ryan TE, Patteson DJ, McClung JM, Spangenburg EE, et al. Exercise-induced protection against reperfusion arrhythmia involves stabilization of mitochondrial energetics. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;310(10):H1360-70.
    • Armstrong N, Barker AR, McManus AM. Muscle metabolism changes with age and maturation: How do they relate to youth sport performance? Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(13):860-4.
    • Bondar OV, Sagitova AV, Badeev YV, Shtyrlin YG, Abdullin TI.Conjugation of succinic acid to non-ionogenic amphiphilic polymers modulates their interaction with cell plasma membrane and reduces cytotoxic activity. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013;109:204-11.
    • Damiano S, Montagnaro S, Puzio MV, Severino L, Pagnini U, Barbarino M, Cesari D, et al. Effects of antioxidants on apoptosis induced by dasatinib and nilotinib in K562 cells. J Cell Biochem. 2018; Jan 18. doi: 10.1002/jcb.26686. [Epub ahead of print].
    • Hajizadeh Maleki B, Tartibian B, Eghbali M, Asri-Rezaei S. Comparison of seminal oxidants and antioxidants in subjects with different levels of physical fitness. Andrology. 2013;1(4):607-14.
    • Lu Y, Zhang P., Guo J, Zhu Z, Li X, Xu D, Zeng W. Melatonin protects mouse spermatogonial stem cells against hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis and epigenetic histone modification. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;340:30-8.
    • Mortadi A, El A, Melouky E, Chahid E, Nasrellah H, Bakasse M, et al. Chahid Rheological and electrical properties used to investigate the coagulation process during sludge treatment. Water Sci Technol. 2018;77(1):196-203.
    • Mota MR, Dantas RAE, Oliveira-Silva I, Sales MM, Sotero RDC, Venâncio PEM. Effect of self-paced active recovery and passive recovery on blood lactate removal following a 200 m freestyle swimming trial. Open Access J Sports Med. 2017;28(8):155-60.
    • Rahman MQ, Rahman MQ, Chuah KS, Macdonald EC. The effect of pH, dilution, and temperature on the viscosity of ocular lubricants-shift in rheological parameters and potential clinical significance. Eye (Lond). 2012;26(12):1579-84.
    Publication of the article «World of Medicine and Biology» №3(65), 2018 year, 028-032 pages, index UDK 577.152:57.017.3-014 : 796.331.441
    DOI 10.26724/2079-8334-2018-3-65-28-32