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    Fik V.B.

    MORPHOLOGY OF RATS’ PERIODONTAL TISSUES UNDER THE ACTION OF OPIOID FOR SIX WEEKS


    About the author: Fik V.B.
    Heading EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
    Type of article Scentific article
    Annotation The experimental study was conducted on sexually mature male rats weighed 200 g, aged 4.5 months. A single daily dose of Nalbuphine was injected intramuscularly for six weeks. The dosage of opioid analgesics was increased to a maximum single dose ranged from 0.212 mg/kg to 0.260 mg/kg at the end of 6th week. Amputated maxillae and exarticulated mandibles were used for microstructural study considering topographic ratio of tissues of the dental organ and conducting histological sections of 5-7 μm in thickness. Histological preparations were prepared according to generally accepted method conducting preliminary decalcification using dyes as hematoxylin, eosin and azan by Heidenhain’s method. Tissue damages of marked inflammatory character, which are typical signs of focal periodontium, have been revealed during microscopic examination of periodontium in rats injected with opioid analgesics for 6 weeks. The damage of the gingival epithelium occurred in oral, sulcal and connective sections. The periodontal pocket is formed as the result of the destruction of the epithelial attachment and circular ligament. Correspondingly, ”neoplasms” of a thin multilayered flat non-keratinized epithelium was also revealed in the region of the periodontal pocket with signs of acanthosis and proliferation into the lamina propria of the gingival mucosa with the progression of the afore-mentioned changes. Invasion of multilayered flat keratinized epithelium into the lamina propria of gingival mucosa was observed within gingival papilla creating atypical picture of cribriform structures. Reserve capillaries and "neoplasms" of capillaries were observed in the lamina propria of the mucous membrane simultaneously to hemodynamic disorders. Morphological signs of marked inflammatory process were also recorded in dense formed and loose unformed fibrous connective tissues of periodontium. Focal damage to periodontal hard tissues was also defined. The osseous tissue of the alveolar crest is nonhomogeneous; the initial phenomena of lacunar resorption with fibrotic Haversian canals, at the periphery of which osteoclasts were revealed, has locally been noted. The layers of the periosteum are hyperplastic, cementum of the tooth root is subtle, irregularly mineralized. Thus, a six-week influence of opioid in small doses leads to the development of chronic inflammatory process in all structures of the periodontal tissue complex. Focal damage to the epithelium, the formation of the periodontal pocket, which is a prerequisite for the spread of the process into deeper tissues, was recorded in soft tissues of periodontium. Connective tissue fibrosis is a prerequisite for further damage to the function of the tissue. As a result, structural and metabolic changes occur in tissues manifested by mucoid swelling and detachment of periodontal fibers from the alveolar crest and their invasion into the osseous tissue. Moderately marked hypercementosis and initial signs of resorption phenomena of nonhomogeneous osseous tissue of the alveolar crest were observed in hard periodontal tissues. Consecutively, signs of compensatory and adaptive reactions, in particular, epithelial neoplasms of the periodontal pocket and newly formed capillaries of the connective tissue have been found. Conducted studies provide future opportunity to make a comparative analysis and clarify the dynamics of pathomorphological changes in periodontal tissues under the influence of opioid analgesics at the early and late terms with the possibility of conducting a probable corrective impact.
    Tags opioid, rats, periodontium, microscopic examination
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    Publication of the article «World of Medicine and Biology» №4(66), 2018 year, 218-222 pages, index UDK 611.314.17/.19:615.212.7(7)]-018.73-019
    DOI 10.26724/2079-8334-2018-4-66-218-222